The World Bank and Education in Afghanistan

Education refers to the process of enabling people to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, beliefs, and techniques by teaching, instructing, presenting and practicing them. Educational systems include formal classroom teaching, training, counseling, role-playing, discussion, and group work. The concepts of education are not always understood clearly in all contexts. In education, the notion of subject and object, learning’s nature and the relation between learners and teachers is also important.

An education curriculum may be formal or informal. Informal education has the characteristics of: exploration, participation, flexibility, multiple activities, interpersonal communication, quality assessment, and feedback. Formal education is based on traditional academic methods; formal education is aimed at achieving higher educational achievement. Students participate more in the formal learning process through coursework and homework assignments; informal education is a combination of these two types of education.

A formal education system provides students with formal knowledge while they are in a learning state, such as when students are taking part in field work or performing laboratory tasks. Formal education is based on standard instructional procedures, textbooks, coursework, and discipline specifications. Informal education systems do not have these specified procedures, coursework, or testing requirements.

In comparison to formal education, nonformal systems also exist. Nonformal education is a combination of two educational systems: informal and formal. Informal education is considered a viable alternative to formal education for many people because of its accessibility, its flexibility, and the ability to fit into a variety of settings. Informal education relies on the discovery process through active involvement of learners. Informal learning relies on the use of technologies that facilitate the interaction between learners and instructors.

The two types of education systems in Afghanistan are characterized by their instructional systems. An education system that is formal is based on the teaching methods used by teachers at any point in time. Teachers depend on a strict set of criteria for the evaluation of each student and each teacher assignment. Instructors use a very specific set of criteria for evaluating students, which includes understanding the subject matter and implementing the lessons.

The type of learning environment that exists in Afghanistan depends on the type of education system that exists in that country. An education system based on formal education requires that students have completed at least grade school. Students are tested on their knowledge of reading and writing, their mathematical skills, their ability to work independently, and their ability to work well within a classroom. Students who score high in these areas receive higher grades and earn more credits. Students who fail to receive lower grades or are suspended from school.

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