Different Processes of Information Management
Information is the knowledge of something abstractly and it is usually quantifiable. Quantitative information is usually derived from statistics, experimentation, scientific experimentation and observation. Knowledge obtained by quantitative methods is generally considered as factual because it comes from experimentation and observational studies with particular ends in mind. The theoretical basis of quantitative information is experimentation and observations on real events. However, knowledge created experimentally is also quantitative in nature but it is not supposed to form a basis for decisions in decision making at a strategic level because such information may have errors that can be corrected after the experiment is completed and the results are released.
Information, in a broad sense, is structured, processed and organised information. It gives context to previously collected data and allows quick decision making about action. For instance, a single customer’s sale in a restaurant is statistical information-it becomes information when the company is able to track the most common or least common dish among customers.
Knowledge, on the other hand, is a more specific concept and refers to a body of information that has been proven to be accurate, although it is not always tested or validated. It is also more difficult to collect and code than information. Knowledge is used by decision makers in many contexts. Decision makers may base their knowledge and the reliance on it in part on the existing structure of knowledge and in part on the information that is available to them and they may base their decision on this information.
Knowledge can be formalised and organised in different ways. Theory based knowledge is the knowledge that has been constructed by an outside source through systematic investigation and scientific methodologies. Formalised knowledge on the other hand is knowledge that has been discovered by researchers within a specific scientific field who have been able to demonstrate its accuracy and usefulness to the field. It is also often supported by observations and studies within a particular field. Formal knowledge can also be combined with informal knowledge as in the case of scientific journals and journal articles.
The goal of information systems and information security is to provide users with consistent and verifiable information that meets their unique needs. The process of information management involves collecting information, managing it, using it to support decision making and ensuring that it is used in a manner consistent with the policies and procedures of the organisation. Information management also involves sharing information, making sure that it is appropriate to the audience, regulating access, maintaining compliance and defining methods of governance.
Applied sciences are research areas that have been based on the understanding and utilisation of information science in order to solve problems. In some cases this is combined with the theories of information and science in the social sciences, but is not dependent upon them. This is because applied science is more concerned with how the physical, chemical and logical nature of the world and nature itself provides us with information and understanding about the world. One example of an applied science that uses information science methods is climatology which studies climate. Another example is marine biology where research and study is done using the theories of information science.